Sidebar Harbor Management Plan- Introduction and Overview

Online version is NOT official, it is only for use as a reference.
Official copies can be viewed or purchased at the
Department of Planning, Conservation, and Development.


Abandoned Vessel: Any vessel. As defined by State statue, not moored, anchored, or made fast to the shore, and left unattended for a period greater than 24 hours, or left upon private property without consent from the waterfront property owner for a period greater than 24 hours.

Active Recreational Use: Recreational uses generally requiring facilities and organization for participation and/or having a more significant impact on the natural environment than passive recreational uses.

Aids to Navigation: All markers on land or in the water placed for the purpose of enabling navigators to avoid navigation hazards and/or to fix their position. Aids to navigation include Federal aids placed and maintained by the U.S. Coast Guard, and “private” aids placed and maintained by all other government and private interests under permit from the U.S. Coast Guard and Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. Private aids include any buoys, signs, and other markers identifying restricted speed areas.

American Heritage Rivers Initiative: A Federal program intended to increase public enjoyment of the historic, cultural, recreational, economic, and environmental values provided by America’s great rivers. Nationwide, ten rivers are to be designated as American Heritage Rivers during the program’s first year. The program is to provide Federal assistance in support of local projects that protect natural resources, promote economic revitalization, and preserve cultural heritage. The Connecticut River is one of over 100 rivers nominated nationwide for designation in 1998.

Anchorage: A nonchannel water area that may be designated for the safe anchoring of vessels.

Anchoring: To secure a vessel temporarily to the bottom of a waterbody by dropping an anchor or anchors from a vessel.

Aquatic Environment: Waters of the United States, including wetlands, that serve as habitat for interrelated, interacting communities and populations of plants and animals.

Aquifer: An underground geological formation, or group of formations, containing usable amounts of groundwater and capable of yielding considerable quantities of water to wells and springs.

A-Zone: That portion of the floodplain as marked on Flood Insurance Rate Maps prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency that is likely to be inundated by a flood with a one-percent annual chance of occurring (“100-year” flood).

Best Management Practice (BMPs): Regulatory, structural, or non-structural techniques applied to prevent and reduce nonpoint source pollution. Some examples of BMPs are buffers of streamside vegetation to keep pollutants from entering a watercourse; construction of wetlands to act as natural filters; and better maintenance of lawns and septic systems.

Bulkhead: A vertical wall of wood, steel, or concrete, build parallel to the shoreline and designed to deflect waves and control erosion.

Buoy: A float; especially a floating object moored to the bottom of a waterbody to mark a channel, mooring location, restricted speed area, or the location of something beneath the surface of the water such as a rock or shoal.

Carrying Capacity: A term generally used to refer to the level of use or extent of modification that environmental or man-made resources may bear before unacceptable resource deterioration or degradation occurs.

Channel: A water area specifically designated for unobstructed movement of vessels, shown on navigation charts, and marked in-water by aids to navigation. The Connecticut River navigation channel through the Middletown Harbor Management Area is a Federal navigation channel authorized by Congress and maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Clean Vessel Act: Federal legislation intended to reduce overboard discharge of sewage from recreational boats and providing funds for the construction, renovation, operation, and maintenance of pump-out stations for holds tanks and dump stations for portable toilets.

Clean Vessel Act Program: Connecticut’s program, administered by the Department of Environmental Protection, to implement the goals of the Clean Vessel Act and through which Federal funds for the purpose of the Act are distributed.

Coliform Bactreria: Widely distributed microorganisms found in the intestinal tracts of humans and other warm blood animals and used as an indicator of the sanitary quality of water.

Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs): Discharges from a sewerage system that carries both sanitary sewage and stormwater runoff. Normally, combined sewers carry all wastewater to a treatment facility. During storm events, however, stormwater volume may be so great as to cause overflows. When this happens, untreated mixtures of stormwater and sanitary sewage may flow into receiving waters.

Commerce Power: The Federal authority, established by the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution, whereby the Congress has exclusive powers over interstate commerce and therefore jurisdiction over all navigable waters of the United States.

Commercial Mooring: A mooring as defined by the Corps of Engineers for which any type of fee is charged, (excepting any fee charged by a municipality for a mooring permit issued by that municipality’s harbormaster) and which must be authorized by a permit from the Corps of Engineers, the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, and the harbormaster.

Commercial Vessel: Any vessel, licensed or unlicensed, used, or engaged for any type of commercial venture, including but not limited to the carrying of cargo and/or passengers for hire and commercial fishing.

Connecticut Harbor Management Act: The legislation contained within the State of Connecticut General Statutes, Section 22a-113k through 22a-113t, as may be amended from time to time, and which authorizes municipalities to establish harbor management commissions and prepare harbor management plans.

Contaminant: A chemical or biological substance in a form that can be incorporated into, onto, or be ingested by and that harms aquatic organisms, consumers of aquatic organisms, or users of the aquatic environment. A contaminant that causes actual harm is sometimes referred to as a pollutant. (See Pollutant.)

Controlling Depth: The most shallow depth in the navigable parts of a waterway, thereby governing the maximum draft of vessels that can safely use that waterway.

Corps of Engineers: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers which is the principal Federal agency with roles and responsibilities pertaining to harbor management in Connecticut. These roles and responsibilities include authority to regulate structures and work seaward of the mean high water line as well as responsibility to maintain Federal navigation projects.

Cultural Resources: Natural and man-made resources related to open space, natural beauty, scientific study, outdoor education, archaeological and historic sites, and recreation.

Cumulative Impacts: The impacts on environmental or man-made resources that result from the incremental impact of an action when added to other past, present and reasonably foreseeable actions. Cumulative impacts can be result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time.

Department of Environmental Protection (DEP): The principal State agency responsible for management of the State’s natural resources. Among other responsibilities, the DEP’s Office of Long Island Sound Programs (OLISP) has responsibilities for implementing the Connecticut Harbor Management Act and for approving structures and other work affecting the coastal and navigable waters of the State, including the Connecticut River.

Deputy Harbormaster: A Deputy Harbormaster for any Connecticut municipality with navigable waters within its limits who may be appointed by the Governor of Connecticut in accordance with Section 15-1 of the Connecticut General Statutes, and who shall carry out his or her duties under the direction of the Harbormaster.

Discharge of Dredged Material: Any addition of dredged material into waters of the United States. Dredged material discharges include: open water discharges; discharges resulting from unconfined disposal operations (such as beach nourishment or other beneficial uses); discharges from confined disposal facilities which enter waters of the United States (such as effluent, surface runoff, or leachate); and overflow from dredge hoppers, scrows, or other transport vessels.

Disposal Site: An in-water or upland location where specific dredged material disposal activities are permitted.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO): The oxygen, vital to fish and other aquatic life, freely available in water. Traditionally, the level of dissolved oxygen has been accepted as the single most important indicator of a water body’s ability to support beneficial aquatic life.

Dock: A structure that can be used as a landing or berthing space for a vessel or vessels; generally defined as a wharf or portion of a wharf extending along the shoreline and generally connected to the upland throughout its length. Docks may float upon the water or be fixed structures abutting the shoreline.

Dockominium: A marina development and operation concept whereby the user of a boat slip or berth purchases fee simple title to the use of that slip or berth.

Dolphin: A cluster of piles, bound firmly together and driven into the bottom of a harbor, to which boats may be secured.

Dredging: The excavation of sediments and other material from aquatic area for the purpose of maintaining adequate depth in navigation channels and berthing areas as well as for other purposes.

Ecosystem: The interacting system consisting of a biologic community and its nonliving environment, each influencing the properties of the other and both necessary for the maintenance of life.

Effluent: Treated or untreated wastewater that flows out of a wastewater treatment plant, sewer, industrial outfall, marine sanitation device, or other source; generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters.

Emergency: A state of imminent or proximate dangers to life and property.

Erosion: The wearing away of the shoreline by the action of natural forces including wave action and currents.

Estuary: A confined coastal water body with an open connection to the sea and a measurable quantity of salt in its waters. Estuaries are of particular ecological value and significance because they provide important natural values concerning, for example, fish and wildlife habitat, flood protection, and the maintenance of water quality. The Connecticut River estuary and other Connecticut estuaries contribute to the ecological health of Long Island Sound.

Excursion Vessel: A vessel providing sight-seeing tours available to the general public.

Fairway: A specific water area to be kept free of obstructions to ensure safe passage of recreational and commercial vessels to, from , through, and alongside navigation channels, mooring areas, anchorages, and berthing areas.

Fecal Coliform Bacteria: Specific coliform bacteria associated with the digestive tract of warm-blooded animals.

Federal Navigation Project: Authorized by Acts of Congress and maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Federal navigation projects may consist of designated channels and anchorages as well as dikes, breakwaters, and jetties designed to maintain ease and safety of navigation. In the Middletown Harbor Management Area, the Connecticut River Navigation Project consists of a channel with an authorized depth of 15 feet and width of 150 feet.

Filling: The act of adding or depositing material to replace an aquatic area with dry land or to change the bottom elevation of a water body.

Fill Material: Any material used for the primary purpose of replacing an aquatic area with dry land or changing the bottom elevation of a water body for any purpose. Dredged material can be used as fill material.

Float: Any structure, buoyant on the water surface, extending seaward, and affixed and secured in place to the shore, a bulkhead, or dock, whose purpose is to berth and secure vessels and provide a means of access to and from the shore. The term float includes a floating dock.

Floatable Debris: Trash floating in coastal waters or washed upon the shore and which may reduce beneficial use and enjoyment of a waterbody, present a nuisance or hazard for boaters, and harm wildlife.

Floating Home: Any structure constructed on a raft, barge, or hull, moored or docked and that is used primarily for single or multiple-family habitation or that is used for the domicile of any individual(s).

Flood/Flooding: A general and temporary condition of: 1) partial or complete inundation of normally dry land resulting from the overflow of inland and/or coastal waters; and 2) the unusual accumulation of waters from any source.

Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM): An official map of a community prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency identifying the elevation of the “100-year” flood and the areas that would be inundated by that level of flooding, and used to determine flood insurance rates. The FIRM of the City of Middletown is dated July 16, 1990.

Floodplain: Low lands adjoining the channel of a river, stream, watercourse, or other body of water, which have been or may be inundated by flood water, and those other areas subject to flooding.

Floodway: The channel of a river or other watercourse plus any adjacent floodplain areas that must be kept free of encroachment so that the “100-year” flood discharge can be conveyed without increasing the water surface elevation more than a designated amount. The floodway is intended to carry the deep and fast-moving water.

Foreshore: The part of the shore lying between the mean high water line and the low water mark which is ordinarily traversed by the rising and falling tides and which is held in trust by the State of Connecticut for the public interest and use.

Freshwater Wetlands: Wetlands subject to regulatory authority of the State of Connecticut pursuant to the Inland Wetlands and Watercourse Act. Freshwater wetlands perform a variety of ecologically important functions, including functions related to maintaining and improving water quality, as well as providing important fish and wildlife habitat.

Freshwater-Tidal Wetlands: Wetlands of particular high nutrient and biological productivity, found along the Connecticut River beginning about eight miles upstream of the mouth of the River, where freshwater is affected daily by the tide; freshwater-tidal wetlands provide habitat for a greater diversity of fish and wildlife species than freshwater or tidal wetlands.

General Permit: A type of permit issued by the Corps or Engineers for structures and work subject to the Section 10 and 404 regulatory programs. A general permit is an authorization issued on a nationwide or regional basis for categories of activities judged to be substantially similar in nature and to cause only minimal individual and cumulative adverse environmental impacts.

Geographic Information System (GIS): A computerized data base of land use and other types of information referenced to a location; enables statistical analysis, comparison, and display of large quantities of data for planning purposes.

Greenbelt: A linked system of natural areas along the shoreline of a watercourse or body of water, often including public easements, open space land, and public access walkways. A greenbelt typically provides a natural, protective buffer area between the upland and aquatic area, conserves valuable natural resources, and may provide opportunities for passive recreational use.

Groundwater: The supply of freshwater found beneath the earth’s surface (usually in aquifers) which is often used for supplying wells and springs.

Habitat: The place where a human, animal, plant, or microorganism population lives, and the living and nonliving characteristics, condition, and surroundings of that place.

Harbor Improvement Agency: The municipal agency, established through Section 26-12 of the Middletown Code of Ordinances, responsible for initiating and implementing, in cooperation with appropriate City agencies, plans, specifications, and estimates for the full development and beautification of the waterfront area which lies along the banks of the Connecticut River within the corporate limits of the City of Middletown. The Harbor Improvement Agency is designated by Section 26-12 of the Middletown Code to function as the City’s Harbor Management Commission and to carry out all of the powers and duties of a municipal harbor management commission as authorized by the Connecticut Harbor Management Act.

Harbormaster: The Middletown Harbormaster appointed by the Governor of Connecticut in accordance with Section 15-1 of the Connecticut General Statutes and responsible, in accordance with other sections of the Connecticut General Statutes, for the general care and supervision of the navigable waters within the territorial limits of the City.

Harbor Management Commission: A municipal commission that may be established, pursuant to authority provided by the Connecticut Harbor Management Act, and charged with specific responsibilities for managing the navigable waters within the municipality’s territorial limits, including responsibilities for preparing and implementing a municipal harbor management plan. The Middletown Harbor Improvement Agency is designated by Section 26-12 of the Middletown Code to function as the City of Middletown’s Harbor Management Commission.

Harbor Management Plan: A municipal plan for the balanced use of navigable waters within a municipality’s territorial limits for recreational, commercial, and other purposes and for the protection of environmental resources as prepared by the recreational, commercial, and other purposes and for the protection of environmental resources as prepared by the municipality’s harbor management commission, adopted by the municipality’s legislative body, and approved by the Connecticut commissioners of environmental protection and transportation in accordance with Sections 22a-113k through 113t of the Connecticut General Statutes.

Hazard to Navigation: Any obstruction, usually sunken, that presents a sufficient danger to navigation so as to require expeditious, affirmative action such as marking, removal, or redefinition of a designated waterway to provide for navigational safety.

High Tide Line: The line or mark left upon tide flats, beaches, or along shore objects that indicates the intersection of the land with the water’s surface at the maximum height reached by a rising tide. Proposed work and structures seaward of the high tide line are subject to State regulatory authorities carried out by the Connecticut DEP.

Hypoxia: A condition of degraded water quality characterized by a deficiency of oxygen.

Individual Permit: A type of permit issued by the Corps of Engineers for structures and work subject to the Section 10 and 404 regulatory programs. An individual permit is issued following evaluation of a specific proposal and involves public notice of the proposed activity, review of comments and, if necessary, a public hearing. In general, an individual permit must be received from the Corps for most activities that involve: a) filling of wetlands and navigable waters; b) placement of structures in navigable waters; and c) dredging and disposal of dredged material.

Individual-Private Mooring: A mooring belonging to an individual and authorized for use by a mooring permit issued by a municipality’s harbormaster.

Knot: The unit of speed used in navigation equal to one nautical mile (6,076.115 feet or 1,852 meters) per hour.

Land Use: The character and condition of the use of land and which may be described in terms of general categories, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and open space, or with reference to the specific use of development of a specific site.

Launching Ramp: A man-made or natural facility used for the launching and retrieval of boats; primarily providing facilities for boaters to launch trailers boats and park their vehicles and trailers while engaging in boating activities.

Live-Aboard Vessel: Any berthed, anchored, or moored vessel that is used as permanent residence. (See Floating Home.)

Maintenance dredging: The generally periodic and repetitive removal of recurring, naturally deposited bottom sediment from an existing navigation channel or berthing areas.

Marine Facility: Any facility (including but not limited to docks, floats, piers, ramps, hoists, parking areas, concessions and service facilities), either publicly or privately owned, intended primarily to be used by or for the service of vessels.

Marine Sanitation Device (MSD): Any equipment installed on board a vessel to receive, retain, treat, or discharge sewage.

Mean High Water: A tidal datum. The arithmetic mean of the high water heights observed over a specific 19-year Metonic cycle (the National Tidal Datum Epoch).” Proposed work and structures seaward of the mean high water line are subject to federal regulatory authorities carried out by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as well as State regulatory authorities. All land and water areas seaward of the mean high water line are subject to the Public Trust Doctrine and held in trust by the State of Connecticut for public use. The mean high water line also marks the seaward boundary of the jurisdiction of the Middletown Planning and Zoning Commission.

Mean Low Water: A tidal datum. The arithmetic mean of the low water heights observed over a specific 19-year Metonic cycle (the National Tidal Datum Epoch).

Mean Lower Low Water: A tidal datum. The arithmetic mean of the lower low water heights of a mixed tide observed over a specific 19-year Metonic cycle (the National Tidal Datum Epoch). Only the lower low water of each pair of low waters, or the only low water of a tidal day is included in the mean. Federal navigation projects now reference the Mean Lower Low Water.

Mitigation: An action to lessen the severity of impact of another action, either natural or human. Mitigation may refer to an action taken to reduce or eliminate the risk to human life and property and the negative impacts that can be caused by flooding and other natural and technological hazards. Mitigation may also refer to actions designed to lessen the adverse impacts of proposed development activities on natural and cultural resources, including wetlands and water resources.

Moor: To secure a vessel to the bottom of a waterbody by the use of mooring tackle.

Mooring: The place where, or the object to which, a vessel can be made fast by means of mooring tackle so designed that, when such attachment is terminated, some portion of the tackle remains below the surface of the water and is not under the control of the vessel or its operator.

Mooring Area: A designated water area within which vessels may moor.

Mooring Tackle: The hardware (e.g., chain, line, and anchor) used to secure a vessel at a mooring.

National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP): A program established by the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968 to provide relief from the impacts of flood damages in the form of Federally subsidized flood insurance available to participating communities; such insurance is contingent on the incorporation of non-structural flood loss reduction measures into local floodplain management regulations.

Natural Resource Values: The qualities of or functions served by natural resources (such as wetlands, floodplains, and water resources) which include but are not limited to: a) water resources values (including natural moderation of floods and water quality maintenance); b) living resource value (fish, wildlife and plant habitats); and c) cultural resource values (open space, natural beauty, scientific study, outdoor education, archaeological and historic sites, and recreation).

Nautical Mile: A unit of nautical measurement accepted as 6,076.115 feet, approximately 1.15 times as long as the U.S. statute mile of 5,280 feet.

Navigable: Capable of being navigated or passed over by ships or vessels.

Navigable in Fact: A body of water navigable in its natural or unimproved condition, affording a channel for useful commerce of a substantial and permanent character conducted in the customary mode of trade and travel on water.

Navigable Waters of the United States: Those waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and/or are presently used, or have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport interstate or foreign commerce.

Navigate: To go from one place to another by water by sailing or managing a boat; to use a waterbody as a highway for commercial, recreational, educational, or other purposes.

Navigation: The act, science, or business of traversing the sea or other navigable waters in vessels.

Navigation Station: The public right of navigation for the use of the people at large. Any property right dependent for its exercise or value on the presence of navigable waters is subject to a defect of title, called a servitude, originating from an ancient common law principle whereby there is a right of way of the public to use a stream or other water body for navigation despite the private ownership of the bed or bank. Hence, in exercise of Congress’ power over navigation stemming from the Commerce clause of the Constitution, no further Federal real estate interest is required for navigation projects in navigable waters below the ordinary high water mark.

No Discharge Zone: An area designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency within which no sewage, untreated or treated, may be discharged from any vessel. An area particularly sensitive to contamination and that will benefit from a complete prohibition of all vessel sewage discharges may be designated by the EPA upon application by a state, contingent upon the certification by the state that adequate and reasonably available pump-out facilities exist for boaters to use.

Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution: Pollution that does not originate from a specific identifiable source such as a sewage discharge pipe. Types of nonpoint pollution include storm-water runoff from roads, parking lots, and backyards, as well as wet and dry atmospheric deposition. Precipitation can carry pollutants from the air to the ground and then gather more pollutants as the water runs off pavement and land to the nearest waterway.

Nonstructural Flood Protection Measures: Planning, regulatory, and other techniques intended to discourage or avoid dangerous, uneconomic, or unwise use of floodplains and erosion prone areas, as distinguished from the more traditional “structural” measures (such as dams, levees, and seawalls) used to control flooding and erosion.

Obstruction to Navigation: Anything that restricts, endangers, or interferes with navigation.

“100-year” Flood: A term commonly use to refer to a flood of the magnitude that has a one-percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. The “100-year” flood is the flood that is equaled or exceeded once in 100 years on the average, but the term should not be taken literally as there is no guarantee that the “100-year” flood will occur at all within the 100-year period or that it will not recur several times. The “100-year” flood is the standard most commonly used for flood plain management and regulatory purposes in the United States, and is therefore often referred to as the “base flood” for floodplain management purposes.

Outfall: A structure (e.g., pipe) extending into a body of water for the purpose of discharging wastewater, stormwater runoff, or cooling water.

Passive Recreational Use: Recreational activities, such as hiking, walking, picnicking, canoeing, and fishing, generally not requiring facilities and organization for participation and/or having little significant impact on the natural environment.

Pathogen: Microorganisms that can cause disease in other organisms or in humans, animals, and plants. Pathogens may be bacteria, viruses, or parasites transported in sewage and runoff from agricultural and other areas.

Person Watercraft: Any inboard powered vessel less than sixteen feet in length which has an internal combustion engine powering a water-jet pump as its primary source of motor propulsion and which is designed to be operated by a person sitting, standing, or kneeling on the vessel, rather than the conventional manner of sitting or standing inside the vessel.

Pier: Generally, a structure, usually of open construction, extending out into the water from the shore to serve as a vessel landing place or recreational facility rather than to afford coastal protection; generally defined as a wharf or portion of a wharf extending from the shoreline with water on both sides.

Pile: A long, heavy timber or section of concrete or metal to be driven or jetted into the earth or seabed to serve as support or protection.

Point Source Pollution: Any discernable confined or discreet conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, vessel or other floating craft from which pollutants are or may be discharged.

Pollutant: Generally, any substance introduced into the environment that adversely affects the health of plants and animals of the usefulness of a resource, and including toxic substances, nutrients, and pathogens which adversely affect water quality.

Pollution: The man-made or man-induced alternation of the chemical, physical, biological, or radiological integrity of an aquatic ecosystem. (See Contaminant.)

Public Access: Physical and/or visual access to marine or tidal waters that is available to all members of the general public and therefore not limited to any particular groups of individuals.

Public Trust Doctrine: The doctrine based on the common law principle that certain lands and waters are so important to the public that private ownership or other impediments to public uses should not be permitted. Under the Public Trust Doctrine, the State of Connecticut holds title to the foreshore, open tidal waters, and submerged land under tidal waters seaward of the mean high water line as trustee for the public and must administer the use of these lands in the public interest.

Pump-out Station: A marine facility for pumping sewage from vessel holding tanks and then containing that waste before proper disposal into a sewage disposal system.

Ramp: A structure used to gain access from a bulkhead, fixed dock, or platform to float; also, a uniformly sloping surface used for launching small craft.

Recreation Boating Facilities: Facilities for the support of recreational boating activities, including marina and boatyard facilities providing docks, slips, moorings, and launching ramps as well as sales, repair, service, and storage facilities, and private docking facilities constructed by waterfront property owners.

Revetment: A facing of stone, concrete, or other hard material, built to protect a scarp, embankment, or shore structure against erosion by wave action or currents.

Risk: The probability of being flooded.

Riparian: Of or relating to or living or located on the bank of a watercourse.

Riparian Ecosystem: Distinct associations of soil, flora, and fauna occurring along a river, stream, or other body of water and dependent for survival on a periodically high water table.

Riparian/Littoral Rights: The rights of an owner of land contiguous to a navigable body of water. If the water in question is flowing (e.g., river or stream) the rights are said to be riparian. If the property is subject to the ebb and flow of the tide, the rights are said to be littoral rights. The terms “riparian” and “littoral” are commonly used interchangeably. Riparian rights may be defined as principally the right of access to the water, the right of accretions and relictions, and the right to other improvements. Littoral rights are usually concerned with the use and enjoyment of the shore.

Runoff: That part of precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water that runs off the land into streams or other surface water and can carry pollutants from the air and land into the receiving body of water.

Sanitary Sewer: A system of pipes, usually underground, that carry only wastewater, not stormwater.

Section 10 and 404 Regulatory Programs: The principal Federal regulatory programs, carried out by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, affecting structures and work below the mean high water line. The Corps, under Section 10 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899, regulates structures in, or affecting, navigable waters of the United States, as well as excavation or disposition of materials (e.g., dredging or filling) in navigable waters. Under Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (Clean Water Act of 1977), the Corps is also responsible for evaluating applications for Department of the Army permits for any activities that involve the placement of dredged or fill material into waters of the U.S., including adjacent wetlands.

Sediment: Particulate material, both mineral and organic, that is in suspension, being transported, or has been moved from its site of origin by the forces of air, water, gravity, or ice, including material deposited in a loose, unconsolidated form on the bottom of a water body. The term dredged material refers to material that has been dredged from a water body, while the term sediment refers to material in a water body prior to dredging.

Sedimentation: The process of transportation and deposition of particles onto the bottom of a body of water.

Sewage: The combination of human and household waste with water which is discharged to the home plumbing system including the waste from a flush toilet, bath, sink, lavatory, dishwashing, or laundry machine, or the water-carried waste from any other fixture, equipment, or machine, together with such groundwater infiltration and surface water as may be present.

Sewer: A system of pipes, usually underground, that carries wastewater and/or stormwater runoff from the source to a treatment plant or receiving body of water. Sanitary sewers carry household, industrial, and commercial waste; storm sewers carry runoff from rain and melting snow; combined sewers are used for both purposes.

Sheet Pile: A pile with a generally slender, flat cross section to be driven into the ground or seabed and meshed or interlocked with like members to form a bulkhead or seawall.

Shoal: A shallow place in a river or sea, comprised of material that is not rock, that may endanger surface navigation. Also, to become shallow gradually; to cause to become shallow; to proceed from a greater to a lesser depth.

Slack Tide: The state of a tidal current when its velocity is near zero, especially the moment when a reversing current changes direction and its velocity is zero; sometimes considered the intermediate period between ebb and flood currents.

Slip: Berthing space for a single vessel alongside a pier, finger float or walkway.

Storm Sewer: A system of pipes, generally underground, carrying only stormwater runoff from building and land surfaces; as distinguished from a sanitary sewer.

Stormwater Runoff: The rainwater, melting snow, and associated material draining into storm drains and water bodies.

Structural Flood Protection Measures: Engineered measures such as dams, dikes, levees, seawalls, and channel alterations designed to modify the volume and location of flooding and extent of erosion, intended to help protect lives and properties from the impacts of floods and erosion.

Tidal Wetlands: Wetlands subject to the ebb and flow of the tide, defined by State statute, and subject to the regulatory authorities of the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection in accordance with Section 22a-359 through 22a-363f (the “Structures and Dredging” statute) of the Connecticut General Statutes.

Toxic Substances: Substances, both naturally occurring and derived from human sources, that cause adverse biological effects or health risks when their concentrations exceed a certain level in the environment. Toxic substances include heavy metals and organic chemicals such as chlorine, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and pesticides.

Transient Boaters: Persons traveling to a harbor or marine facility by boat and staying for a temporary period of time.

Turbidity: A state of reduced clarity in a fluid caused by the presence of suspended matter.

Unauthorized Encroachment: Any structure (including docks, piers, floats, pilings, moorings and other structures) and any other work (including dredging and filling) extending into a Federal navigation project or into any other areas below the high tide line without necessary City, State, and/or Federal approvals.

Underway: The condition of a vessel not at anchor and not made fast to the shoe or aground.

Upland: Land lying above the ordinary high water mark.

Upland Disposal: Disposal of dredged material on upland sites where the material is contained in a manner such that it is isolated from the environment.

Vessel: Every description of watercraft, other than a seaplane on water, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water. Specifically excluded by this definition are floating homes.

Vulnerability: Characterization of the nature and extent of damage that may occur during flooding.

Wastewater: Water that carries treated or untreated wastes, including dissolved or suspended solids, from homes, businesses, and industries.

Water Column: The water located vertically over a specific location on the floor of a water body.

Water-Dependent Uses: Those uses and facilities defined in the Connecticut Coastal Management Act that require direct access to or location in marine or tidal waters and which therefore cannot be located inland.

Water Quality Standards: Standards established by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection for all of the State’s waters to provide clear and objective statements for existing and projected water quality and the State’s general program to improve Connecticut’s water resources.

Water Resources Values: Natural values including those related to natural storage and conveyance of flood water, maintenance of water quality, and recharge of groundwater.

Water of the United States: This term, as it applies to the jurisdictional limits of the authority of the Corps of Engineers under the Clean Water Act, includes all navigable and interstate waters, their tributaries and adjacent wetlands, as well as isolated wetlands and lakes, and intermittent streams.

Watershed: A drainage area; the region or area contributing ultimately to the water supply of a particular water course or water body. The Connecticut River watershed, for example, is the area within which precipitation drains into the Connecticut River and ultimately into long Island Sound.

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